We are yet to uncover so many things of the past. The ancient times were further ahead than we presume them to be. On example is the technology that existed then. They have been many discoveries that determine that the ancient Greeks, Romans, and other civilizations had devised numerous technologies to accomplish day-to-day work. From refrigerators for keeping ice cool in the hot desert to cups that could change color, we bring to you 10 incredible ancient technologies that will just blow your mind.
1. By 400 BC, Persian engineers had mastered the technique of storing ice during summers in the desert.
During the winters, the Persian people used to bring ice from nearby mountains and store them in pits they created in the middle of the desert. The ice pits, known as “yakhchal,” were one of the most ancient refrigerators known to mankind. They were also used to keep food cool and healthy during the intense summers.
On first glance, the structure looks like a large dome made from mud brick. Some of the structures were as tall as 60 feet. Below the dome lies a large underground space with excess storage area. The underground space was as large as 5,00 cubic meters. The underground space was connected to a “qanat,” or wind catch. The wind catch consisted of multiple windcatchers that had the ability to bring down the temperature to frigid levels during the summers.
The wall of the dome used to be as thick as two meters. Moreover, it was made by a special mortar that was comprised of sand, clay, egg whites, lime, goat hair, and ash in specific proportions. The walls were resistant to heat transfer, thus keeping the insides cool. Also, they were impenetrable to water which helped to keep the ice and food safe. But what if somehow the ice melted a little bit? For such unforeseen circumstances, a trench was provided at the bottom so that the melted water could be caught and frozen again during the chilly desert nights. The entire structure was really well-thought despite being from an ancient era. (1, 2)
2. The “Archimedes screw” is a hand-operated machine that can move water up using gravity. If reversed, it can generate energy by water moving down.
The Archimedes screw was predominantly used for irrigation purposes in the ancient times. The machine was a screw inside a hollow pipe. The screw was initially operated by hand but later, wind energy was utilized. The technology exists to this day and is operated with the help of a motor. As the shaft starts to turn, the bottom end of the device scoops up water. this water is then pushed to the top of the screw via the rotating helcoid until it comes out from the top end. (source)
3. There is an ancient masonry technology in Mexico that allows bricklayers to build vaults and roof-type domes using only their trowel, without formworks or ceiling mounts.
Tequisquiapan is a town located in the state of Querétaro Arteaga, one of the 32 federal entities of Mexico. The town is home to a generation of masons known as “bovederos.” These masons seem to have a superpower as they can build vaults and roofs of domes with just their trowel! For those who do not know what a trowel is, it is a small hand tool that is mostly used for digging or when applying concrete to bricks.
So, these masons from Mexico do not need the aid of any support and build domes with just their trowels! The video above shows this gravity-defying act in action. These masons do not require any formworks or ceiling mounts. It is said that the technology has been passed on from parents to children from generation to generation. This is one of the ancient technologies that still exists today. (source)
4. The ancient Egyptians invented the ramp to aid construction processes.
The Egyptians are well known for their massive architectural structures such as pyramids. They normally make their structures quite tall and uniquely shaped. Such massive structures call for the use of ramps during construction. Ancient Egyptians have been known to invent ramps to be used to carry materials during construction. A ramp is just an inclined plane against a horizontal surface that enables people to overcome resistance. By applying a small force for a longer distance, the load can be carried to a height rather than applying intense force to lift or raise it vertically. The Egyptians were surely ahead in their time when it came to construction. (source)
5. The “Antikythera mechanism” is a 2,000-year-old computer developed by the Greeks. It was used to predict the position of the planets and stars in the sky depending on the calendar month.
One hundred sixteen years ago, divers found came across a shipwreck off the coast of a Greek island. They inspected the site and discovered an odd-looking bronze item. Little did they know that this small discovery would change our understanding of human history.
The structure had a series of gears made of brass and dials mounted on something that looked like a mantel clock. The structure had at least two dozen gears laid on top of one another with perfect calibration. Archaeologists came to the conclusion that this must be some kind of analog clock of the past or a calculating device. A debate went on for years until Princeton science historian Derek J. de Solla Price provided a detailed analysis of the device in 1959. His study revealed that the device was used to predict the location of the planets and stars taking into account the calendar month. According to Price’s analysis, the main gear would move to represent the calendar year, in turn, would move the separate smaller gears that represent the motions of the planets, Sun, and Moon. In short, when the main gear is set to the current date, the device would point out the location of the celestial bodies in the sky!
In Price’s words, “The mechanism is like a great astronomical clock … or like a modern analog computer which uses mechanical parts to save tedious calculation.” The logic behind calling it an analog computer is that similar to a computer, the user can provide an input and get the desired output based on some calculations. (source)
6. A 1,600-year-old Roman chalice, the “Lycurgus Cup,” shows that Roman artisans were nanotechnology pioneers. They’d impregnated the glass with particles of silver and gold as small as 50 nanometers in diameter.
This ancient jade-green cup appears red when lit from behind. Scientists believe that the Romans may have been the first ones to come across the colorful potential of nanoparticles by accident, but they sure perfected it! This amazing property of the Lycurgus Cup puzzled scientists for decades when the cup was acquired by the British Museum in the 1950s. It was not until 1990 that the mystery was solved.
Researchers studied broken fragments of the cup under the microscope and discovered that the ancient Romans had created the glass with silver and gold particles that were ground to be as small as 50 nanometers in diameter. This was less than one-thousandth the size of a salt grain. This suggests that the Romans knew what they were doing, meaning they had knowledge of nanoparticles! The way it worked was when the light hit the cup, the electrons belonging to the particles of the cup vibrate in ways that alter the color depending on the position of the observer. So. when different liquids would be poured into the cup, the electrons would behave differently, and the color would change. This is exactly how home pregnancy tests work. (1, 2)
7. Heron of Alexandria was the first to create a programmable robot to entertain audiences at the theatre. The device could move on its own and even change directions! He also invented the first vending machine, syringe, and windwheel among others.
Hero of Alexandria was surely the “Tony Stark” of his time. Many of his creations were the first to have existed. He has been known to create the first vending machine, syringe, force pump, fountain, etc. He is also said to have created a windwheel operating an organ making it the first instance in history where wind energy was used to run a machine.
But the most astonishing of all was the mechanical device that has been termed as the world’s first robot. The device was used to entertain the audience in the theatre. It had the ability to play by itself for almost ten minutes and was powered by a binary-like system of ropes, knots, and simple machines. The entire structure was operated by a rotating cogwheel that was cylindrical in shape. In the video above, the device has been recreated by New Scientist, a media company. (source)
8. The Hal Saflieni Hypogeum, built by the people of Malta and Gozo, has incredible acoustic properties. The structure is said to amplify voices dramatically with certain frequencies resonating enough to be felt through the body.
The Hal Saflieni Hypogeum is a 6,000-year-old underground burial chamber located on the Mediterranean island of Malta. Archaeologists believe that this underground structure was built by the people of Malta and Gozo around 4000 BCE. It was used for the purpose of ritualizing life and death. The structure consists of a large network of cavities and corridors. But the thing that has attracted experts to the site is the amazingly unique acoustic properties of the underground chamber.
Amidst all the chambers and corridors, there exists a special chamber that has been carved out of solid limestone. This is the chamber that produces unique sound properties. Known as the “Oracle Chamber,” any sound made in the chamber gets magnified a hundredfold. Also, the sounds made in the chamber can be heard throughout the structure. According to William Arthur Griffiths, author of Malta and its Recently Discovered Prehistoric Temples, such acoustic properties were created so that when the oracle spoke from the chamber, the words would resonate throughout the structure with terrifying impressiveness.
At certain places within the Hypogeum, certain frequencies or pitches of sound vibrates into the bones and tissues as much as resonating in the ear. Richard Storm, the Sarasota arts and architecture critic, explains the sensation as, “Because you sense something coming from somewhere else you can’t identify, you are transfixed.” Scientists are still working on whether the underground structure was intentionally made to produce such acoustic wonders or it was just an accident. But in case, it was intentional, and that means that the ancient engineers of Malta knew something that modern scientists have not grasped yet. (source)
9. The 2,000-year-old ancient Roman concrete is far better than the present day concrete. It is more durable and also environmentally friendly.
Experts today are fascinated by the longevity of the ancient Roman concrete structures. These cement structures are more than 2,000 years old, but they are still sturdy. The harbor structures, even after being washed by sea waves for so long, have not shown a single sign of erosion. Take into account our modern cement structures. They just give out after a few decades.
Finally, researchers led by geologist Marie Jackson from the University of Utah were able to study the chemistry involved in the ancient Roman concrete, and they have uncovered some astonishing properties. Not only is the Roman concrete is more durable than modern cement, it even gets stronger with time! The researchers studied the crystalline structure of the cement and were able to discover precisely how the cement solidifies over time.
Modern concrete is a typically a mixture of silica sand, limestone, clay, chalk and other ingredients that are melted together at insanely high temperatures. The final product is made inert so that no chemical reactions can take place that might lead to erosion. This is the reason why concrete does not last as long as natural rocks. On the other hand, ancient Roman concrete was created with volcanic ash, lime, and seawater. The Romans took advantage of the chemical reactions they may have observed in tuff rocks, which are naturally cemented volcanic ash deposits. More volcanic rock was mixed in with the volcanic ash which would lead to more reactions making the concrete more durable.
The researchers also found out that a very rare mineral known as aluminous tobermorite and a related mineral called phillipsite was found in abundance in the concrete. Note that these minerals were not added but were formed within the cement as a result of the natural chemical reactions. “The Romans created a rock-like concrete that thrives in open chemical exchange with seawater,” says Jackson. (source)
10. Damascus steel used to make blades hold high reputation even today for their toughness and resistance to shattering. They are known to have had the ability to cut through a rifle barrel and to cut a hair falling across the blade.
The Damascus steel is a legendary material that has been widely used by warriors of the past, including the Crusaders.
The remarkable characteristics of the legendary steel became famous when the Crusaders traveled to the Middle East in the early 11th century. People were astonished by the unique properties of the blades. It is said that the swords made from this metal had the ability to split a feather in midair! Moreover, these swords retained their sharp edges even after being in numerous battles. The swords were easily recognized by a characteristic watery or ”damask” pattern on their blades.
The armorers who made swords, shields, and armor from Damascus steel have been secretive of their method throughout the ages. But with the advent of firearms, the secret was lost. Fast forward a few centuries, people have been trying to re-create the Damascus steel through reverse engineering. This means that during a time of self-driving cars, we are still unable to decode technologies used by our ancestors. (source)